UPDATE: DBP Disinfectant Byproducts is at the heart of our water woes regardless of fracking being near drinking water sources (think of the high bladder cancer rates and read on)….anytime water is being treated per http://wellgal.com/drinking-dead-water-void-essential-minerals/
“…local water is regulated, but sometimes the odor and taste isn’t that great depending on where you live in the country. Also, to make water safe, water treatment plants often use chlorination or other disinfection techniques. The problem is that chlorination (and treatment methods such as ozone) can react with organic compounds in the water (e.g., algae), contaminants, bromide, and iodide and result in disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which have definite health risks.
Studies show DBPs may affect reproductive function (e.g., lower sperm counts, delayed puberty) and be linked to certain cancers, such as bladder cancer. There are several kinds of DBPs [e.g., Trihalomethanes (THMs), Haloacetic Acids (HAAs), Haloacetonitriles (HANs), etc.]. Some are currently regulated by the government, but the problem is that many are still “emerging.” So, your tap water may not be as safe as you think”.
UPDATE: Sadly, a company called Water Rescue Services in Midland had a deadly explosion when 23 yr old Julian Gallardo was mixing CHEMICALS. Scientists say to use NON-chemical ways to treat these waters to avoid unwanted disinfection by-products.
This blog entry is to educate folks on HOW dangerous (frack-related) by-products (crack) can form before, during, and after the frack and can legally be in our municipal treated drinking water…(UPDATE Arlington TX’s TTHM’s almost tripled since 2007/advent of Urban Drilling is a great correlation to take notice of!)
Duke University’s Avner Vengosh, responded to my email where I was concerned that recycling produced water for useful products (like fighting fires, watering the roads) would make exponential amounts of “frack on crack”. His offer to test our Barnett Shale produced water was not responded to by our city officials or Enervest, one of our currently active operators in Arlington TX. Here is a copy of the offer…
From: “Avner Vengosh, Ph.D.” <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: kim feil <email@example.com>
Cc: Buzz Pishkur <firstname.lastname@example.org>; Don Crowson <email@example.com>; Trey Yelverton <firstname.lastname@example.org>; Zacariah Hildenbrand <email@example.com>; Jim Parajon <firstname.lastname@example.org>; Cynthia Simmons <email@example.com>
Sent: Tuesday, November 17, 2015 10:59 PM
Subject: Re: Help me w/ fairmontbrine’s process on NORM concerns
Professor of Geochemistry and Water Quality,
Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences
Nicholas School of the Environment
205 Old Chemistry Building; Box 90227
Durham, NC 27708
“Detective” Vengosh, along with other American and French scientists, have found natural tracers/tale-tell sign constituents to implicate drilling operators/water haulers in a produced water spill from unconventional oil & gas waste water.
Produced waste water is ancient formation waters that are disturbed and flow to the surface (or leak through casing failures) for the life of the well along with the oil & gas they mine for. Fracking for shale oil & gas disturbs and releases lithium and boron (tracers) which are natural elements found in shale rock. Not finding lithium & boron can exonerate fracking operators when investigating polluted water.
If flooded drillsites & spills weren’t enough to awake folks to the dangers of run off getting into aquifers, there are other ways of contamination besides (Texas/RRC ignored) NORM.
After-the-frack-water-contamination occurs not just from the chemicals injected (as found on FracFocus) that can spill during the mixing. Toxins brought up like polyaromatic hydrocarbons (-which thankfully were NOT found in Texas in high amounts per the Rice University RU study) are also a concern in all the differing geologys. The focus of this blog is about the contamination that occurs from unintended ways from re-actions…..
“RU team also found that produced water contained potentially toxic chlorocarbons and organobromides, most likely formed from interactions between high levels of bacteria in the water and salts or chemical treatments used in fracking fluids.
Barron said industry sometimes uses chlorine dioxide or hypochlorite treatments to recycle produced water for reuse, but these treatments can often enhance bacteria’s ability to convert naturally occurring hydrocarbons to chlorocarbons and organobromides.”
The abstract of the study can be found here.
Carcinogenic frack related by-products LEGALLY end up in OUR drinking water two ways… either they are under the state or federal MCL (maximum contaminant level) for TTHM and HAA5…..
TCEQ pg 178RG-346 Revised May 2012
Fees, Standards, and Reporting Requirements for Public Water Systems “§290.272(c)(4)(D)(iii) In accordance with date requirements included in the table under §290.115(a) of this title (relating to Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts (TTHM and HAA5)), entitled “Date to Start Stage 2 Compliance,” for the MCLs for trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA5), systems must include the highest locational running annual average for TTHM and HAA5 and the range of individual sample results for all monitoring locations expressed in the same units as the MCL. If more than one location exceeds the TTHM or HAA5 MCL, the system must include the locational running annual averages for all sampling points that exceed the MCL”.
OR they are simply NOT screened for like Iodinated Trihalomethane that Vengosh was concerned about.
Vengosh stresses the importance of not spilling brine/produced water along the way and to use NONchemical methods in treating produced water.
I boldfaced on Avner’s quote to American Scientist: “In fact, what we found in another study that we published last year is that even a tiny amount of brine, naturally occurring bromide that’s coming from a spill, could have a devastating effect on communities living downstream from the discharged water, because when communities use surface water, they usually disinfect the water to get rid of bacterial contamination. This disinfection process generates by-products if the water contains two components: One is organic matter, which is common in many of the streams and rivers; the other component is halogen, which means bromide and iodide. We did some experiments with colleagues from Stanford University and showed that a tiny amount of hydraulic fracturing fluid mixed with surface water could trigger the formation of disinfection byproducts. Some components, such as iodinated trihalomethanes, which are extremely toxic, are not being regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and could be generated from the introduction of the wastewater into drinking water utilities. Even a tiny spill with a small amount of the bromide and iodide could trigger the formation of those highly toxic disinfection by-products in drinking water.
Naturally occurring contaminants, including the radioactivity, may have more effects and be more widespread than the manmade chemicals that everybody is making their focus”.
Which brings me back to my issue with NORM not being mandated to be tested for in Texas by the EPA or the state (TCEQ) when applying to treat and DISCHARGE oil & gas waste waters into the environment where allowed.
Please contact your representatives and demand:
- NON-CHEMICAL produced water treatments
- that we start screening for Iodinated Trihalomethanes at water treatment plants,
- that drilling operators and their contractors have to screen for AND report radionuclides BEFORE being allowed to treat & discharge or re-purposed produced waters,
- and that we classify produced water as TENORM so the water haulers have to keep TXDOT records that verify amounts being trucked from the padsites to the disposal wells.
My previous blog warns that as seismicity increases due to injection wells, that more restrictions to injection wells could result in the cost benefit of treating produced water (to sell as useful products) or releasing into the environment (for free if watering agriculture or wildlife) may become more commonplace in Texas …for now its still cheaper in Texas to inject it.
To recap the triggering of the formation of disinfection by products:
BEFORE the frack a tiny amount of frac fluids mixing with surface water,
DURING the frack any on site spills, or along the way to dispose/treat,
DURING the recycling or treatment for release of produced waters, and
AFTER the frack any contaminated surface water being treated at our municipal drinking water facility.
From: kim feil <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Buzz Pishkur <email@example.com>
Sent: Tuesday, January 5, 2016 12:49 PM
Subject: Please tell me I’m wrong about the ways we can drink frack on crack
From: kim feil <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: “Wilson.Js@epa.gov” <Wilson.Js@epa.gov>
Cc: “Eby.Louis@epa.gov” <Eby.Louis@epa.gov>; “Larsen.Brent@epa.gov” <Larsen.Brent@epa.gov>; Lon Burnam <email@example.com>
Sent: Wednesday, January 6, 2016 12:01 AM
Subject: High levels of Barnett Shale Beryllium (radionuclide) correlation found with density of gaswells w/high pressure
“Migration pathways from fractured wells to groundwater are poorly understood
Geospatial modeling correlated groundwater chemicals to Barnett fractured wells
Increased Beryllium strongly associated with hydraulically fractured gas wells
Indirect evidence of pollutant migration via microannular fissures in well casing
Large-scale and spatial approach needed to detect groundwater quality changes”
Please help spread the word that Julian Gallardo’s death can be a potential life saver in preventing #FRAckONcraCK which complicates waste-water’s toxicity, thank you.
update cut & paste…
From: kim feil <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: “email@example.com” <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Sent: Wednesday, January 20, 2016 11:18 AM
Subject: Be advised/evidence U were notified that alternatives to injection disposal should NOT involve the use of chemical treatments per geochemists
Enhanced Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Shale Gas Wastewater-Impacted Drinking Water Supplies