a c r y l o n i t r i l e: used in the fracking industry to coat the frack sand. When heated, gives off hydrogen cyanide (HCN) fumes. Frack sand undergoes heat during the fracking process…in our neighborhoods. HCN is a class 2B carcinogen.
Assessment of risk from exposure to acrylonitrile: the general approach used by a consultant.
“The concern from low-level exposure to acrylonitrile is primarily due to its potential for carcinogenicity. Several epidemiology studies provide suggestive evidence for an association of lung cancer in workers exposed to acrylonitrile; however, smoking may be a contributing factor and therefore the role of acrylonitrile as a causative factor is unclear. Seven animal bioassays, using three routes of exposure and two strains of rats, have provided consistent results. Tumors were induced in all studies, with the primary sites of tumor induction being the brain, ear canal, gastrointestinal tract and mammary glands. The linearized multistage model was used for extrapolation purposes. The risk based on brain tumors (astrocytomas) and stomach tumors following oral exposures ranged from 1 x 10(-1) to 4 x 10(-1)mg-1kg-1day-1. The risk of inhalation exposure is somewhat less, (2-3) x 10(-2). Support for carcinogenic potential is obtained from mutagenicity studies. Acrylonitrile has been found to be mutagenic and also binds with DNA. It has been speculated that acrylonitrile is metabolized to 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which is the proximate carcinogen.”
Here is a story of water well poisoning by acrylonitrile in Wyoming posted in 2013 and claimed against Chesapeake…a must read!
In fireengineering.com they reported back in 2009 of HCN risks…“Common manmade materials that generate cyanide gas during combustion include nylon, polyurethane, melamine, and acrylonitrile. These materials are ubiquitous in building furnishings, vehicles, foam insulation, carpets, draperies, appliances, many plastics, and articles of clothing.” They forgot to add to that list FRACKING CHEMICALS…
7/1/2015 Another HCN release (Hydrogen Cyanide)…this time from a train car near Knoxville Tennessee where thousands were evacuated and 22 first responders were treated for exposures and needed to be D E C O N T A M I N A T ED !…update 7/7/2015 A FB friend a follow up article about ACRLYLONITRILE having been found that contaminated a water well sample 350 feet away from this derailment and people are asked NOT TO DRINK THEIR WELL WATER.
6/26/15 RSOE reports in Waco TX that 14 workers were taken to a hospital upon being exposed to residue of hydrogen cyanide from an oil field tank that was being dismantled at a recycling plant. This on the heels of an intentional attack on an American gas plant in France as a terrorist target makes for all our fossil fuel numerous oil & gas infrastructures near people as yet another risk of Urban Drilling…lovely.
“Fourteen workers were taken to local hospitals as a precaution as firefighters and a hazmat crew worked Thursday to contain and extinguish a fire that was burning inside a storage tank at a recycling center containing the residue of a toxic chemical…The business has been evacuated and Waco Fire is monitoring the air quality around the neighborhood. … a crew there reported a fire inside a steel tank they were cutting into scrap, Swanton said. The tank, similar to one farmers use to spread anhydrous ammonia, had been scrapped from an oil field and was being dismantled, Swanton said. Workers began cutting the tank Wednesday afternoon and noticed some residue inside the tank caught fire and began smoking. The workers left the tank over-night and when they started cutting it with torches again Thursday morning, another fire started. The workers were concerned about the smoke and fumes so they called the fire department, which dispatched a hazmat team, and learned the residue inside the tank was from hydrogen cyanide. …..the area is safe and while residents may smell a strange odor,….. systemic chemical asphyxiant that in significant quantities interferes with the normal use of oxygen by nearly every organ of the body, according to the U.S. Centers For Disease Control website. Exposure to hydrogen cyanide can be rapidly fatal,….. sensitive to low oxygen levels: the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the pulmonary system. Hydrogen cyanide also is a chemical warfare agent.”
I *testified back in 2011 in Arlington TX at the TCEQ State Implementation Plan meeting and reported on a c r y l o n i t r i l e being found in Colorado & New Mexico fracking air studies. I also spoke about the (failed) $1 million dollar air study that Ft Worth did years ago that found a toxic aldehyde that could be used as a biocide, acrolein, in exceedance amounts. The executive summary read…. “For the relatively few sites with multiple, large line compressor engines, the modeling analysis found some areas beyond Fort Worth Natural Gas Air Quality Study Final Report July 13, 2011 xiv the setbacks to have estimated acrolein and formaldehyde concentrations greater than protective health-based screening levels published by TCEQ…”
*My testimony/report… 7/14/2011 TCEQ SIP public hearing 10 am first two speakers….”Ed Ireland presented this morning that the Phase 2 emissions equipment inventory shows that TCEQ has overstated the projected VOC emissions 5 times more than what the seven leaders of drilling in the Barnett Shale say they emit, that DFW traffic emissions are 6 times more than the almost 11,000 Barnett Shale wells emit in the 9 county area. I (Kim Feil being the second speaker) questioned him that this equipment inventory does not account for what the Permit By Rule application also does not require them to report which is emissions from start up (site set up, truck traffic, drilling, fracking and flow back), maintenance (blowdowns for compressor stations), and shut down emissions. Once the wells are in production, then it’s up to the infrared cameras to detect the invisible hydrocarbons. And so counting inventory equipment emissions is understating (currently unregulated or grandfathered in), real emissions to mothers and breathers.